The Antoniolo family re-established the farm and vineyards in 1945 after being abandoned in 1910 due to extremely harsh economic conditions brought on by phylloxera. Today, Lorella Antoniolo is one of Gattinara’s most famous producers. Rosella Antoniolo was the first to produce 100% Nebbiolo Gattinara wines, moving away from blending with other white and red varietals in the early fifties. Limestone is the parental rock in Barolo and Barbaresco; in Gattinara the soil elements are formed by ancient volcanic activity, and the decomposition of the Alps which were deposited in the area over millions of years. The soils are low pH and are composed of granite, quartz and iron, this yields Nebbiolo of great minerality, tension, and long life.The tannins are fine, resulting in an elegant expression of Nebbiolo. Close proximity to the Alps and Mt. Rosa create a climate that is cooler with more intermittent alpine rains; the wines are typically a full degree lower in alcohol and suffer less heat stress than Barolo and Barbaresco. Nebbiolo is locally known as Spanna. Integrated insect and disease control has been followed since 1995. No systemic plant protection products (products which act by systemic transport – through the sap of the plant) are used. Prevalence of sulphur and copper base products. No chemical fertilizers and no products against botrytis are used. Natural cover crops (grass cover) are left on the rows between the vines. After many years of these practices the vines (80% of the vines are over 30 years old) are much more resistant and are “balanced”. Very low doses of SO2 used in the wines.